Saturday, March 14, 2020
The appropriate literature sources and analyse the key concepts surrounding the motivation and expectations of volunteers. The WritePass Journal
The appropriate literature sources and analyse the key concepts surrounding the motivation and expectations of volunteers. Introduction The appropriate literature sources and analyse the key concepts surrounding the motivation and expectations of volunteers. IntroductionStudies on VolunteersÃ¢â¬â¢ Profile, Motivation, Expectations and the benefits of Volunteering.Studies based on Theories of Altruism and Selflessness and categorising the volunteersÃ¢â¬â¢ Motivation into FactorsStudies on Special Sport EventsConclusionRelated Introduction Studies on VolunteersÃ¢â¬â¢ Profile, Motivation, Expectations and the benefits of Volunteering. Studies on VolunteersÃ¢â¬â¢ Profile, Motivation, Expectations and the benefits of Volunteering has gainedÃ more ground than ever before in recent years, due to the big Sports Events becoming more important than previously. Because of theÃ development of the Society, the demand of Volunteers is needed. There is a wider literature on VolunteersÃ¢â¬â¢ Profile, Motivation, Expectations and the benefits of Volunteering. One of the most significant researches that have been done on Volunteers is the National Survey of Volunteering (Smith, 1997), which examined how volunteers are recruited and the benefits of volunteering. The most important results were that the primary motivations for volunteering were based on altruistic and self- interestedÃ reasons. Smith had found that 48% of the respondents had offered to help, following 47% who had been asked to help by someone. An additional 45% had volunteered because of the needs and interests of their family and friends, and 42% because of thier own needs and interests. Ã Ã¢â¬Å"The most important benefits volunteers had takenÃ from their voluntary work were the enjoyment they experienced , the satisfaction of seeing result, meeting new people, making Ã friends and a sense of personal achievementÃ¢â¬ . (Smith, 1997,Ã p.61-62)Ã Manchester Metropolitan University (2008) similarly had conducted aÃ Study on Volunteers of the Commonwealth Games to draw-up a profile of volunteers and their pre-Games motivations and expectations on a sample of 698 volunteers. The most important motivation for volunteering found by the study was the volunteers were motivated by being a part of a team and supporting their city, in this case Manchester, and their nation, as well as taking advantage of a unique opportunity. Ã When the participants of the study were asked if one of their reasons for volunteering in the Commonwealth Games was because it is an exciting experience almost all had agreed that this was one of their main reasons for volunteering, as was the fact that the opportunity itself was a chance of a lifetime and it also provided satisfaction when they helped others. The results on the experience of volunteering were thatÃ the whole experience proved to be a unique experience for them and their expectations were far exceeded. The volunteers of the Commonwealth Games had said that they thought that the Games were successful, and they were proud that they were a part of this Event ( Ralston et al., 2008). G. Pauline and J. S. Pauline (2009) investigated the demographic profile of volunteers and their motivation for getting involved in a professional tennis event. Their results were that the VolunteersÃ¢â¬â¢Ã profile were similar to those of tennis participation population and were similar to other gamesÃ¢â¬â¢ volunteers .Volunteers were motivated by material and purposive factors.Ã In more detail, the authors found that the Volunteers in their research were influenced in volunteering because they were familiar with the game of tennis. The most common response the authors found regarding the VolunteersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivations was that they volunteered because Ã¢â¬Å"It is fun to volunteer for this eventÃ¢â¬ (Pauline and Pauline, 2009: 178). And the least important motivation mentioned was that of the volunteerÃ¢â¬â¢s employer or school rewarding them with extra credits or bonuses for volunteering. Volunteers were also motivated in helping the event to be successful and serving their community (Pauline and Pauline, 2009) Studies based on Theories of Altruism and Selflessness and categorising the volunteersÃ¢â¬â¢ Motivation into Factors Volunteer motivation uses theories of altruism and selflessness (Phillips, 1982; Rehberg, 2005). The most important and common motivation in many studies has been found to be that volunteers aims are Ã¢â¬Ëto help where is neededÃ¢â¬â¢. Many volunteer researches have found different motivations including those of altruism, social contact, personal interests, and emotional needs to name a few (Yeung, 2004).Ã Mallias and Papadimitriou (2002) conducted a research on the volunteers volunteering in theÃ 2004 Athens Olympic Games, and examined volunteersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivations, based on theories of altruism and selflessness. The data analysis was conducted with a 28 item one-dimensional scale named: the Motivation Volunteer Scale (MVS) and categorised the factors into four groups: Purposive, Solidary, External Traditions and Commitments. Their conclusions were thatÃ the most important motivations of volunteers were Purposive followed by Solidary. Other researches, such as that of Ko kolakakis (1999) on volunteers in the United Kingdom, found that the volunteers tend to volunteer for their own good and own intrinsic satisfaction. Similarly, Shibli, et al. (1999) found that the basic reason for volunteering was not altruistic but rather meeting what volunteers wanted. The literature on Volunteering gives us a complex system of factors that differ from organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ or eventsÃ¢â¬â¢ characteristics. A research by Cnaan and Goldberg-Glen (1991) investigated 27 studies on motivation of volunteers and collected data from 258 volunteers and 104 non-volunteers, and after the data was analysed using a 22 item unidimensional scale named the Motivation Volunteer Scale (MVS), had found that motivations were altruistic and egoistic, showing that volunteers not only wanted Ã to help the organization, but also wanted to be Ã reward from their volunteering. (Cnaan Goldberg-Glen, 1991). Bang and Ross (2009) investigated the impact of volunteersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivations and satisfaction using Bang and ChelladuraiÃ¢â¬â¢s (2003) Volunteer Motivations Scale for International Sporting Events (VMS-ISE). Data were collected from 254 volunteers which volunteered for the 2004 Twin Cities Marathon. The results wereÃ that volunteer motivations could be divided into seven factors: Expression of Values, Community Involvement, Interpersonal Contacts, Career Orientation, Personal Growth, Extrinsic Rewards and Love of SportÃ The factors that showed the volunteersÃ¢â¬â¢ satisfaction were: Expression of Values, Career Orientation, and Love of SportÃ ( Bang and Ross ,2009: 68). Further studies, included that of Wang (2009) which was conducted on volunteers of the 10th National Sport Meeting in 2005 and the 10th National Sport Games in 2005, using both questionnaires and interviews of 350 volunteers who took part. In this study the current state of the participation motivations of the volunteers for large-scale sports events in China were researched. The analysis was done on the factors that motivated volunteers participating in volunteer services and those who dropped-out, and the status of motivations of volunteers who get involved in the voluntary service of large sports events. The results of this study, showed that the motivations of volunteering in voluntary services of sports events can be divided into five factors: Purpose factors, Interpersonal factors, Social Impact factors, Personal factors and the Family Traditional factors. Clary et al. (1998) based on their results proposed six groups of factorsÃ ofÃ volunteer motivations which they categorised as: OpportunitiesÃ expressing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s values relating to altruistic and humanitarian concerns for others; Opportunities for new learning experiences, and to exercise oneÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge, skills, and abilities (Understanding); Ã Opportunities to be with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s friends or to engage in an activity viewed favourably by important others (Social); Experiences that may be obtained from participation in volunteer work (Career); Reduced guilt over being more fortunate than others and addressing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own personal problems (Protective); and The egoÃ¢â¬â¢s growth and development (Enhancement).Ã Hardin et al. (2007) also researched volunteer motivations by grouping those motivations into different factors. These were grouped into four factors which explained how volunteers characterise their incentives of volunteering: Purposive , Self-i nterest,External and Escapism. Grammatikopoulos et al. (2006) used the SEVMS in a study of Greek volunteers, with the purpose of trying to explain the motivation of volunteers by the four factors that Twyncam et al. (2002/2003) have used in their study of the Star Choice World Junior Curling Tournament. The four factors were: solidary, purposive, commitment, and external traditions. Other research on motivations of volunteers grouped into factors is that of Bang and Chelladurai (2003) in the 2002 FIFA World Cup, who foundÃ six factors using the Volunteer Motivations Scale for International Sporting Events (VMS-ISE). The Factors were: Expression of Values, Patriotism, Interpersonal Contacts,Ã Personal Growth, Career Orientation, and Extrinsic Rewards. Studies on Special Sport Events Clary et al. (1998) try to help us understand more about the nature of volunteering, however, Ã they fail to explain the differences between the importance of volunteering in Sports Events and Ã in volunteering in Special Sport Events. Based on the literature scoping of previous research, it has become evident that there is a lack on research on the motivations of the volunteers of Special Sport Events. This has proven a limitation of the research area, as the Special Sport Events have much more prestige due to the social message they give, and therefore differences between the motivations of the volunteers are to be expected (Farrell et al., 1998). Farrell et al. (1998) studied the volunteers motivations and satisfaction at the 1998 Canadian WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Curling Championship by using Cnaan and Goldberg-GlenÃ¢â¬â¢s (1991) Motivational Volunteer Scale. TheÃ result of thisÃ Ã study madeÃ a newÃ 28 item scale called the Special Event Volunteer Motivation Scale (SEVMS) based on the MVS (Cnaan and Goldberg-Glen,1991). The SEVMS divided motivation of volunteersÃ into four categories; purposive, solidary, external traditions, and commitments.The most important factor the results showed were the purposive factors whilst the least important factors were the external traditions which gave more emphasis to Ã extrinsic motivations, and the commitments dimension which gave more emphasisÃ on the expectations of others for vollunteering. Similarly, three other studies (Grammatikopouloset al., 2006; Twynam et al., 2002/2003; Williams et al.,1995) used the SEVMS at special events. One of the studies was on the World Cup downhill skiing event by Williams et al. (1995), which suggested that Ã the most important volunteer motivations were to support the national team, improve and empower the community spirit and the community image. Conclusion Based on the above findings the wider literature is based upon the profile, the motivations, the expectation of volunteers and the benefits of volunteering. Many studies have also found that motivations of volunteers are based on altruism, selflessness and the self determination theories (SD) (Deci Ryan, 1985b; Ryan Deci, 2000). The majority of the volunteer researchers have grouped the volunteer motivations into factors, with the most popular factors being: the purposive and the solidary. The volunteer motivations of Special Sport Events have been found to be limited, with the researches conducted being less than those in Sport Events and more complicated than those in Sport Events .
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Constitutional and Administrative Law (Parliament Sovereignty in UK) - Essay Example Britain is known to have an unwritten constitution; nevertheless, still, they do exist in a solitary text, just like other countries, for instance, the USA and Germany. For that reason, Britain constitution is too often described as partially written and completely unchanged (Goldsworthy, 1999). According to Goldsworthy (2010) the principle of parliamentary supremacy is about the connection between the Legislature and the courts. Is parliament sovereign or the courts? As aforementioned, the United Kingdom is known to have parliament sovereignty, but to what to degree? Dicey asserts that parliament is supreme, meaning that the Legislature has, under the English constitution, the right to make or unmake any decree whatsoever. Further, no individual or entity is acknowledged by the law of England as having a right to overrule or refute the legislation of Parliament. The dogma of legislature sovereignty in the United Kingdom has been considered as the most significant feature of the British constitution. It can be abridged in three parts. The Legislature has the authority to make any law they want, and no legislature can create a decree/law that future parliament cannot amend and only parliament can adjust or unmake a law passed by parliament. It offers categorical authority to Westminster Parliament Dicey illustrates it as the overriding trait of our political organs. Another feature to put into account is the effects of the European Union, the Human Rights Act 1998. It is also essential to consider the Devolution of sovereignty to Scottish Legislature and Welsh Assembly and the establishment of the United Kingdom Supreme Court. These features do not essentially undercut the doctrine of parliament sovereignty, at least theoretically, as the legislature could repeal any of the law carrying out these transformations. The Scottish Legislature and Northern Ireland Congress are both capable to pass key legislation within the places that have been devolved to them. As the network remains devolved and not centralized, the authority of these parliaments stems from the United Kingdom and can be balanced, as has occurred with the Northern Irish case. Nevertheless, this appear improbably to take place in Scotland or Wales, as such a judgment would presently be exce edingly out of favor with the electorate in both areas. The bodies of the European Union, in specific the European Court of Justice (ECJ) that suggests the supremacy to carried out judicial assessment over the United Kingdom law. In this scenario, an unfavorable establishment by the ECJ that a United Kingdom decree is conflicting with the EC Treaties mechanically rescinds the law, because the European Communities Act 1972 offers that European Community decree is sovereign in Britain. An example of this in connection to a law, the Merchant Shipping Act 1988, was the Factortame case. The European Community Act has been considered as a constitutional law. In the case of Thoburn V Sunderland City Council, the Weights puts on leash the impact of parliamentary supremacy, as the ECA must be explicitly repealed for it to be annulled by later unsuited legislation. The European Convention on Human Rights and the integration by the Human Rights Act 1988 of the European Convention an establishm ent of a contravention of Convention rights by the ECHR does not mechanically resc
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Communicative Technology - Short Messaging Service (SMS) - Essay Example The user should have activated the service of sending text messages, this activation involves paying a cost to some mobile network whereas on most mobile phone networks the activation is free. However, each text message costs some amount per text message, though nowadays mobile service networks offer packages that allow you to send a limited number of text messages for a cost in bulk. Lastly, the user who wants to send an SMS should know how to read and type a text message on the mobile phone and the model they have and should have a recipient to whom they want to send their texts to and they are good to go. (Illinois State University 2014). In 1984, a man named Ã¢â¬ËFriedhelm HillebrandÃ¢â¬â¢ was experimenting with casual sentences and questions on his typewriter at his house in Germany. Whenever he wrote a question or a sentence he made a count of the alphabets, number and the spaces in between them. This led to an odd discovery, which further on became the idea behind the length of an SMS. He noticed that every time he counted, the total quantity of characters was less than one sixty characters. (Gayomali, C. 2012). It is said that the first ever text message sent in the world was: Ã¢â¬ËMerry ChristmasÃ¢â¬â¢. It was sent by a man named Papworth. He was a computer designer at Ã¢â¬ËSema Group TelecomsÃ¢â¬â¢. Since the mobile phones at that time did not have the ability to type as there were no keyboards he used his computer to send the greeting to his buddy Ã¢â¬ËRichard JarvisÃ¢â¬â¢ who was employed at Ã¢â¬ËVodafoneÃ¢â¬â¢. (Erikson, C. 2012). In 1993 Ã¢â¬ËNokiaÃ¢â¬â¢ became the pioneer to launch the first ever mobile phone set which allowed the users to send text messages. However, there were limitations to the SMS service, firstly, it could only be typed through a numerical keypad by the multi-tap system and most importantly the SMS service was only limited to one network.Ã Ã
Friday, January 31, 2020
The personalities of the contenders Essay How significant were the personalities of the contenders to succeed Lenin in accounting for StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s defeat of his opponents in the years 1924-29? Lenins death on the 21st January 1924 caused huge sadness across the country. After Lenins death, everyone was eagerly waiting to know who would be the next leader of Russia. In the years after Lenins death, there was no clear successor to his leadership. However, when Lenin was leader, Trotsky was always there for him, and he played a huge role in the Civil War, therefore everyone thought he would become Lenins successor. However, as well as Trotsky there were other significant contenders, such as Stalin, Bukharin, Zinoviev and Kamenev which created a huge power struggle. I believe that the personalities of the contenders were significant in this struggle. However, other factors such as ideological battles, removal of opponents by Stalin and the consolidated powerbases also had an effect. The personalities of all were all extremely different by a great margin. The most likely to win, Trotsky was intellectually gifted which greatly benefitted him. He was also a great military leader and had good organisational skills. Trotsky has a few strong disadvantages to his personality though. His late arrival to the Bolshevik party could be interpret Trotsky as an unloyal character while his arrogance due to his intelligence made him quite a few different enemies in the Bolshevik party. TrotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s arrogance led to his defeat as he vastly underestimated Stalin and the threat he posed, while also decreasing his inner party support. At the time Trotsky would be clear favourite to win but his poor characteristics let him down. The next contender and winner of the battle for power was Joseph Stalin. An underdog and one of the least likely looking people to win, Stalin played his cards well and to his advantage. Being a Bolshevik from the beginning supported the fact that Stalin was a loyal Bolshevik which was a strength of his personality. Stalin being a cunning character was another strength of his and was a contributing factor to the defeat of his enemies as he was easily able to manipulate and outplay them. His ruthlessness and his ability to easily gain support due to his position and authority to promote them also benefitted greatly to the defeat of his enemies. He had a major weakness and thorn in his side though and that was LeninÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion of him. The ability to easily manipulate Stalin was also a major disadvantage for him. While Stalin didnÃ¢â¬â¢t look it, he had just as bigÃ of a chance as Trotsky due to his nature. Another contender in the race for leadership was the Ã¢â¬Å"Golden boyÃ¢â¬ known as Bukharin. Bukharin was possessed one of the best personalities of the party and his traits and strengths such as his incorruptibility and honest and well natured manner were good aspects about him. His Ã¢â¬Å"Golden boyÃ¢â¬ title was also helpful as it represented how liked he was by Lenin before his death. His intellectuality also benefitted him greatly and he was often referred to as the brains of the Bolsheviks. BukharinÃ¢â¬â¢s main weakness though was that he ha d no ambition and he was too young. These factors led to a small support for Bukharin while his right-wing views also cut out some votes for him. Another contender, Zinoviev possessed good strengths such as being a good speaker and being good friends with Lenin. These would essentially give Zinoviev a right to the leadership of the party. He was involved little in the civil war though and his dislikeable and vain nature did little to help him gain the support he needed which was why he teamed up with the last contender Kamenev. Kamenev was also a friend of Lenin but compared to Zinoviev was from a working class background which would have benefitted him greatly due to the say and respect he would have. Kamenev had little influence though and was too uninspirational greatly denting his chances Therefore, what we can infer from the personalities and strengths of each other contenders was that Stalin cleverly manipulated and took advantage of each contenders weaknesses which led to him becoming leader. Stalin would also use the past to his advantage e.g. ZinovievÃ¢â¬â¢s poor revolutionary record or TrotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s past allegia nces. Stalin would also use the personalities of other contenders to his advantage e.g. TrotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s arrogance or the fact that Bukharin has no ambition. There were also many other factors that led to StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s victory though. Another way in which Stalin won was the removal of opponents by Stalin. Stalin slowly but surely took out each of his opponents carefully and concisely. Stalin removed Trotsky by creating the Triumvirate with Kamenev and Zinoviev. Stalin carefully destroyed TrotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation with Zinoviev and Kamenev with things such as questioning his loyalty to Lenin, destroying his influence by questioning his Ã¢â¬ËBonapartismÃ¢â¬â¢ ideology and question his activities leading up to the revolution. Stalin also made Trotsky miss the funeral of Lenin, shocking the party and destroying TrotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s influence by a huge chunk. When Stalin had taken care of Trotsky,Ã he then took care of Zinoviev and Kamenev by splitting the Triumvirate and creating the Duumvirate with Bukharin. With Zinoviev and Kamenev in decline due to the influence they had in the defeat of Trotsky, Stalin easily defeated them. When that had happened Stalin quickly turned against Bukharin and with his growing inf luence Stalin removed him from the race for leadership. At the end of everything, Stalin had removed all opponents and this was a big factor in determining StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s victory due to the fact that it had removed all of the people in the way of Stalin becoming leader of the Bolsheviks. Another way Stalin took power was by increasing his influence by never actually taking a side. While everyone was on either a left-wing or right-wing stance, Stalin remained neutral as to not damage his influence with members of either side. This way Stalin would face less opposition due to him not going against a large opposition of the party. His stance on things such as the NEP also came to his advantage and he both agreed and disagreed with it at different times. Stalin also took a neutral view on how fast Russia should industrialise, he personally however took a left wing view towards this.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
"Shhhh!" my mother whispered as the tanks rumbled by under the cold Afghan night, the stars twinkling above the mountains surrounding us. From our hiding place in the brush along the shoulder of the dirt path through the Khyber Pass, I could see tanks stretching to infinity and, try as I might, I could not find an end to the convoy of trucks. Huddled along with my father, mother, and infant brother and sister, we peered anxiously as the Russian Spetsnaz scouts rolled past us in jeeps ahead of the convoy heading toward the Afghanistan-Pakistan border-the very place our destination lay. My brother began to whimper. My mother began to pray. It seemed as if the line of tanks would never end. Finally, as the last of them rolled by, silence engulfed us. My father had been planning for months for our flight into Pakistan along the Khyber road and we could not stop now. Our nerves were frayed. We had not slept for three days since being smuggled out of the capital and the 15-mile walk across the border might have well been 15 hundred miles. My father stopped for a moment and fished a small, empty... ... Today, that pouch of a few ounces of earth that my father gathered during our last hours in Afghanistan lies on a desk in his study, reminding me of what I have lost, of another place filled with memories that I used to call home. But today, what I call home is in Orange County, California, half a world away from Afghanistan. Perhaps one day I will go back to see what is left after the years of war and strife and once again relax in our old backyard, or go to pick apples in an orchard in the Maymana district. But I will go back only to visit.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Introduction: The term fabrication applies to the cutting, bending, forming, and welding of Individual pipe components to each other and their subsequent heat treatment and nondestructive examination (N DE) to form a unit (piping subassembly) for installation. The term installation refers to the physical placement of piping subassembly, valves, and other specialty items in their required final location relative to pumps, heat exchangers, turbines, boilers, and other equipment; assembly thereto by welding or mechanical methods; final NEED; heat treatment; leak testing; ND cleaning and flushing of the completed Installation.Depending on the economics of the particular situation, fabrication may be accomplished in a commercial pipe fabrication shop, or a site fabrication shop, where portions of the piping system are fabricated into subassembly or modules for transfer to the location of the final installation. As a general rule piping NAPS 21/2 (DNA 65) and larger for nuclear and fossil power plants, chemical plants, refineries, industrial plants, resource recovery, and generation units are most often shop fabricated.Piping NAPS 2 (DNA 50) and smaller Is often shop fabricated where special heat treatment or cleaning practices may be required: otherwise it is field fabricated. Pipelines and other systems involving long runs of essentially straight pipe sections welded together is usually field assembled. In recent years, the infusion of new bending technologies, new welding processes, new alloys, fracture toughness limitations, and mandatory quality assurance (QUA) programs have made piping fabrication and Installation much more complex than In the past.Greater emphasis Is being placed on written procedures for QUA and quality intro (ICQ) programs, special processes, and qualification and certification of procedures and personnel. Improper selection of fabrication or installation practices can result in a system, which will not function properly or will fail before its expected life span. Accordingly, fabrication and installation contractors must work closely with the designer and be aware of the mandatory requirements of the applicable codes, the unique requirements and limitations of the materials, and those of the fabrication and installation techniques being applied.Codes and Standards Considerations: A great many codes and standards apply to piping. It is incumbent on the fabricator and/or Installer to be familiar with the details of these codes and standards since some codes have the force of law, As an example, the SAME 331. 1 Power Piping Coded is referenced by SAME Section I Power Boilers: for piping classed as Boiler External Piping. The latter that is law in most states, contains rules for code stamping, data reports, and third-party inspection. Piping under SAME Section 1113 also has legal standing. Most other piping codes are used for contractual agreements.Most codes preference SAME Section for nondestructive examination methodol ogy and SAME Section XIX for welding requirements. Each of the codes covers a deferent piping practices, some have mandatory requirements, while others only have recommendations. Heat treatment requirements may vary from one to another. The manner in which the code-writing bodies have perceived the hazardous nature of different applications has led to differing NEED requirements. Generally, the codes are reasonably similar, but the owner, designer, fabricator, and installer must meet the specifics of the applicable code to ensure a satisfactory installation.It is essential that the designer be very familiar with the code being used and that purchasing specifications for material, fabrication, and installation be very specific. Reference to the code alone is not sufficient. In the design, a particular allowable stress for a specific material, grade, type, product form, and/or heat-treated condition was selected. The specifications issued for material purchase and fabrication must ref lect these specify to assure that the proper materials and fabrication practices are used. It is also incumbent upon the fabricator and/or installer to be very familiar with the applicable code.Each project should be reviewed in detail. Ã¢â¬Å"Standard shop practicesÃ¢â¬ may not always produce the desired result. Communication between the designer, fabricator, and installer is essential. All should be familiar with the various standards used in piping design. Most piping systems are composed of items, which conform to some dimensional standards such as SAME 836. MM and SAME 836. MM for Pipe, 816. 57 for flanges, etc. The Manufacturers Standardization Society (MS) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) issue other dimensional standards.The Pipe Fabrication Institute (IF) publishes a series of Engineering Standards, which outline suggested practices for various fabrication processes. These standards give excellent guidance for many aspects of piping fabrication not covered by t he codes. The American Welding Society (SAWS) publishes a number of recommended practices for welding of pipe in various materials. Materials Considerations: Piping systems are fabricated from a great variety of metals and nonmetals, material selection being a function of the environment and service conditions. Materials must inform to the standards and specifications outlined in the governing code.Some codes such as SAME Section Ill impose additional requirements on materials beyond those in the material specifications. All fabrication and installation practices applied to these materials must be conducted so as to assure that the final installation exhibits all of the properties implicit in the design. For example, hot bending of certain austenite stainless steels in the assassination range will reduce their corrosion resistance if they are not subsequently heat-treated. Accordingly, a heat treatment to restore these properties should be specified.